During the combustion process, constituents are coincidentally manufactured.  These constituents are primarily metal compounds and acid gases, both are products of incomplete combustion.  The opportunities identified in this area focus on improving the combustion efficiency of the boiler.  These opportunities have the potential to reduce the amount of fuel input required to generate the same energy output.  The rate of conversion is directly proportional to the amount of energy contained within the fuel (i.e. BTU) and the efficiency of the boiler.  This is commonly known as the “heat rate”.




·        Fossil Fuel (Coal, Natural Gas, Oil, and Blend (petroleum coke/Coal)

·        Air

·        Heat


Solids (Coal/Oil only)

1.      Metal Compounds (Ash/Boiler slag)



1.      Acid Gases (Hydrochloric acids, sulfuric acids, and hydrofluoric acids.)

2.      Particulate Matter (trace metals)

3.      Water vapor

4.      Carbon Dioxide/Carbon Monoxide

5.      Nitrous Oxide (NOx




      1. Cooling Water Discharge